Have you ever heard of Diabetes?
Is your loved one suffering from Diabetes?
If you haven’t heard of diabetes, you are probably among the 0.1% of the population living in this world from heaven and Chimnaza is about to bring it to your knowledge bhet if you or your loved one is suffering from diabetes, don’t worry it is not the end of the world and hey! It’s curable depending on the type.
This year’s Theme for world diabetes day 2018 is “The family and Diabetes” and I decided to join the world in lending my little voice on diabetes awareness .
So what’s Diabetes, you ask ?
Diabetes is a Chronic disease affecting pancreas’ inability to produce enough insulin or the body not effectively utilizing the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar .
In event of raised blood sugar or hyperglycemia, a common effect of uncontrolled overtime diabetes results in serious damage of body system including nerves and blood vessels.
According to WHO “As of 2016, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths while in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths.”
Types of Diabetes
There are basically 3 major known types of diabetes.
Also called Insulin dependent diabetes. Common among juveniles with childhood onset, requiring daily administration of Insulin. This type is idiopathic and not preventable.
Symptoms of Type 1:
3 Ps ( Polyphagia, Polydipsia and Polyuria),weight loss, vision change and fatigue
Non-Insulin Dependent with adult onset and the most common type of diabetes. It is due to ineffective insulin utilisation.
Symptoms of Type 2:
Similar to Type 1 but it’s less marked, this being the reason for late diagnosis years after onset.
Simply hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Women with this are at risk of pregnancy and delivery complications and increased risk of Type 2 diabetes in future alongside their children. Most times, it’s diagnosed during prenatal screening.
Diagnosis of Diabetes
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test, which doesn’t require fasting, indicates average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
The higher the blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you’ll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal.
- Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours.A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after two hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.
Treatment of Diabetes
- Diet and physical activity with lowering of blood glucose level and levels of other known risk factors that could damage blood vessels like cholesterol.
- For Type 1: Insulin treatment
- For Type 2: oral medication plus Insulin when necessary.
- Blood pressure control
- Foot care to avoid amputation
- Screening and treatment for retinopathy
- Cholesterol regulation
- Screening for early signs of diabetes-related kidney disease and treatment.
Complications of Diabetes
- Cardiovascular disease
- Nerve damage (neuropathy).
- Kidney damage (nephropathy).
- Eye damage (retinopathy).
- Foot damage.
- Skin conditions.
- Hearing impairment.
- Alzheimer’s disease.
Prevention of Diabetes
Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:
- achieve and maintain healthy body weight;
- be physically active – at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity activity on most days. More activity is required for weight control;
- eat a healthy diet, avoiding sugar and saturated fats intake; and
- avoid tobacco use – smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Remember: Diabetes is Preventable and Curable, early diagnosis gives good prognosis. Visit your family hospital and test your blood glucose level to avoid complications.
You are better loved alive than dead.
Disclaimer: This blog post is solely for awareness purposes and doesn’t replace hospital Check up .